FOUNDATION OF POSTAL SYSTEM IN IRAN
As recorded by Herodotus and Xenophon, the first regular postal system in the history was established in Iran during the reign of the first king of the Achaemenid (Hakhamaneshi) dynasty, Cyrus the Great, in 6th century Be. This communication service was covering the Persian Empire from Europe, Asia Minor, and Egypt to Babylon, Aden, and Arabia to Indian Ocean. The messengers were carrying mail by day and night; the relay stations were built only so far distant from each other so that a horse could run without resting or feeding. Thousands of kilometers roads were built to facilitate the delivery of mail throughout the Persian Empire.
Before the establishment of the modern postal service, the provincial governors were sending their report by special mounted messengers and embassies had their own messengers sent to the borders for mail exchange. These messengers as well as the Caravan leaders and often pilgrims were delivering written messages and letters to various destinations, often against receiving payments.
In 1860's, a kind of postal service was established on two main routes by placing intermediate stations. The persons carrying mail in these routes were charging an arbitrary rate rather than fixed rates. Later on a passenger service company by the name of the Persian Transports Company took over delivering the mail on these routes. These two main routes were:
Teheran (Tehran) - Kazvin (Qazvin / Ghazvin); a distance of 22 Farsakh or about 147.5 Kilometers with five stations. Teheran to Qom (Kum / Ghom) with a distance of 27 Farsakh about 181 Kilometers and from there to Sultanabad (Arak / Aragh) with a distance of 24 Farsakh about 161 Kilometers.
As noted in the "Lion Stamps of Persia" by Dr. Mohammad Dadkhah , in 1851, during the reign of Nassereddin Shah Qajar, Iran's modern postal system was re-established under the supervision of his prime minister, Mirza Taghi-Khan Amirkabir. The news of the new postal service was published in an announcement on Friday, 12th February 1851, in the second issue of the "Vaghayeh Ettefagheeyeh an official newspaper. The announcement read as follows:
"In the view to bring order and harmony in the postal system it was decided that post offices to be built in Tehran and other important provinces and any merchants or other people who wish to send letter by mail should bring it to that post office and leave it with the postmaster on the day the postman is teevinq and on the arriving days of the postmen whoever has letters can pick it up to avoid any delays. However, due to the cold weather and excessive snow this service is now postponed until the first of August when the weather is better. "
تاریخ 11ربیع الثانی 1267 قمری برابر با 25 بهمن ماه 1229 خورشیدی
روزنامه دولتی وقایع اتفاقیه - شماره 2
برای انتظام و انضباط امور چاپار خانه قرار شده بود که در دارا لخلافه تهران و سایر شهرستانهای مهم چاپار خانه ساخته شود و روز خروج چاپار هر یک از تجار و سایر مردم که خواسته باشند با چاپار کاغذ روانه نمایند به آن چاپار خانه آورده به مباشر بسپارند و در روزهای ورود چاپار هم آمده هرکس کاغذ داشته باشد از آنجا بگیرد و رسانیدن کاغذ بمردم بتعویق نیفتد. لکن بجهت کثرت برف و برودت هوا بتعویق ماند که بعد از خوب شدن هوا از اول حوت ساخته شود
According to the Seventh issue of the same publication the postal service started on 17th of Djamadi-ol-avval 1267 or 29th of Esfand 1229 equal to 20th of March of 1851. On 29th October 1851, the prime minister as the first postmaster appointed a senior employee by the name of Shafi Khan .
In early 1860's, by the recommendation of Mirza Ali Amin-eddowleh , the controller of the Post and after the visit of Nasser-eddin Shah Qajar to Europe, a deputation was sent to Paris to make inquiries for establishing a modern postal system and utilizing postage stamps. The deputation was approached by several famous stamp designers in France, which lead to the issuance of the first postage stamps of Iran. Furthermore, in 1875, Iran's postal system was overhauled by Herr Gustave von Riederer, a senior official of the Austrian Postal Administration, upon request by Nassereddin Shah Qajar.
Iran Classic Philtelic Reference by Mr. Mehrdad Sadri